You should read the previous post for more clarifications. Scales in engineering drawing refer to the ratio or proportion used to represent the size of objects and features in relation to their actual size. They provide a standardized way to depict drawings at a reduced or enlarged size while maintaining accurate proportions and measurements.
Scales in engineering drawing are typically expressed in two ways:
- Representative Fraction (RF) or Ratio Scale: The representative fraction or ratio scale expresses the scale as a ratio or fraction. For example, a scale of 1:100 means that one unit on the drawing represents 100 units in real life. In this case, every measurement on the drawing is reduced to 1/100th of its actual size. The RF or ratio scale is commonly used in technical drawings, architectural plans, and engineering designs.
- Graphic Scale or Bar Scale: The graphic scale, also known as a bar scale, is a visual representation of the scale using a line or bar divided into equal units. The bar scale is typically placed on the drawing and provides a direct comparison between the units on the drawing and their corresponding measurements in real life. For example, a bar scale may have markings showing centimeters or inches, allowing the viewer to measure distances accurately.
In addition to expressing the scale, it is important to include a note or statement indicating the scale used in the drawing. This ensures that anyone interpreting the drawing understands the relationship between the drawing and the actual size of objects.
Scales are used in engineering drawings to convey accurate size and proportion information. They allow engineers, architects, and fabricators to understand and interpret the drawing correctly, make precise measurements, and ensure compatibility and accuracy in the final product or construction. The choice of scale depends on factors such as the size of the drawing sheet, the level of detail required, and the purpose of the drawing.
- The base unit of length in the metric system is the meter (m).
- Smaller units of length include the centimeter (cm) and the millimeter (mm).
- Larger units of length include the kilometer (km).
- 1 meter (m) = 100 centimeters (cm)
- 1 meter (m) = 1,000 millimeters (mm)
- 1 kilometer (km) = 1,000 meters (m)
- The base unit of area in the metric system is the square meter (m²).
- Smaller units of area include the square centimeter (cm²).
- Larger units of area include the hectare (ha).
- 1 square meter (m²) = 10,000 square centimeters (cm²)
- 1 hectare (ha) = 10,000 square meters (m²)
These conversions allow for easy conversion between different metric units of length and area. It is essential to use consistent and accurate conversions to ensure precise measurements and clear communication in engineering drawings and designs.
Types of Scales and their uses
- Architect’s Scale: The architect’s scale, also known as the scale rule, is a specialized triangular ruler that contains multiple scales on its edges. It typically includes scales for measuring length, area, and volume. Architect’s scales are used to measure and draw scaled representations of buildings, architectural plans, and structural designs.
- Engineer’s Scale: The engineer’s scale is a linear scale that consists of evenly spaced divisions marked along a straight edge. It is typically used for linear measurements in engineering drawings. The engineer’s scale is commonly employed in civil engineering, mechanical engineering, and structural design to represent dimensions accurately.
- Metric Scale: The metric scale is used in engineering drawings that adhere to the metric system of measurement. It represents measurements in units such as meters, centimeters, and millimeters. Metric scales are widely used globally and are essential for maintaining consistency and compatibility in international engineering projects.
- Inch Scale: The inch scale is used in engineering drawings that follow the imperial system of measurement, primarily used in the United States and a few other countries. It represents measurements in inches, fractions of an inch, and feet. Inch scales are crucial for ensuring accurate measurements and compatibility with existing standards and practices.
- Bar Scale or Graphic Scale: The bar scale, also known as the graphic scale, is a visual representation of a scale directly printed on an engineering drawing. It consists of a line or bar divided into equal segments, each representing a specific unit of measurement. Bar scales allow direct measurement of distances on the drawing without the need for conversions or calculations.
- Diagonal Scale: The diagonal scale is a specialized scale used for precise measurement and conversion of distances. It consists of a series of parallel lines at different angles, intersected by diagonal lines. Diagonal scales are useful for accurately converting measurements between different scales or units.
These different types of scales are essential tools in engineering drawings. They enable accurate representation of measurements and dimensions, ensuring clear communication and compatibility among engineers, architects, and other professionals involved in the design and construction processes. The choice of scale depends on the specific requirements of the project, the units of measurement used, and the standards followed in the industry or region.
Working drawings, also known as technical drawings or construction drawings, are detailed graphical representations that provide specific instructions and information for the construction, fabrication, or assembly of a project. They serve as a crucial communication tool between designers, engineers, architects, and contractors, ensuring that the intended design and specifications are accurately conveyed and implemented. Working drawings are typically created using computer-aided design (CAD) software or by hand.
Main types of working drawings:
- Architectural Drawings: Architectural drawings depict the overall design and layout of a building or structure. They include floor plans, elevations, sections, and other views that show the dimensions, materials, and finishes of the building. Architectural drawings also include details of doors, windows, stairs, and other architectural elements.
- Structural Drawings: Structural drawings illustrate the structural components and systems of a building. They include detailed plans, sections, and details of foundations, columns, beams, slabs, and other structural elements. Structural drawings provide information on load-bearing capacities, materials, and construction methods required for the safe and stable construction of the building.
- Mechanical Drawings: Mechanical drawings focus on the mechanical systems and equipment within a building or project. They include drawings of HVAC (heating, ventilation, and air conditioning) systems, plumbing systems, fire protection systems, and other mechanical installations. Mechanical drawings provide details of equipment, pipe routing, ductwork, and other components necessary for the proper functioning of these systems.
- Electrical Drawings: Electrical drawings depict the electrical systems and wiring within a building or project. They include plans, diagrams, and schematics showing the location and layout of electrical fixtures, outlets, switches, panels, and other electrical components. Electrical drawings provide information on circuitry, load calculations, voltage requirements, and wiring connections.
- Plumbing Drawings: Plumbing drawings focus on the plumbing systems and fixtures within a building or project. They include plans, riser diagrams, and details of water supply lines, drainage systems, sanitary fixtures, and other plumbing components. Plumbing drawings provide information on pipe sizes, connections, slopes, and venting requirements.
- Landscape Drawings: Landscape drawings illustrate the design and layout of outdoor spaces, including gardens, parks, and recreational areas. They include plans, elevations, and details of vegetation, hardscape elements, lighting, and irrigation systems. Landscape drawings provide guidance for the implementation and maintenance of landscape features.
Working drawings play a crucial role in the construction process by providing precise and detailed information required for the successful execution of a project. They ensure that all parties involved have a clear understanding of the design intent and technical requirements, resulting in the accurate construction or fabrication of the project.
Best of Luck To Loksewa Students